Related research

We are very keen to be in touch with related research and researchers. We are focused on pandemic leadership internationally, and UK research on issues directly of concern to leaders.


NFER research on job satisfaction and workload of teachers and school leaders during Covid19 (First study June 2020. Second study September 2020 examines challenges) . A national survey of over 3000 which shows impact on working hours, job satisfaction and sources of pressure and support. In 2021 NFER released further research about the needs of pupils now and the potentials for a recovery plan for learning.

Sharp, C. and Nelson, J. (2021). Recovering from Covid-19: What Pupils andSchools Need Now. Slough: NFER.

ASK research on the experiences of special schools during the pandemic.

Working paper on the early stages of the pandemic and teacher wellbeing by Profs Rebecca Allen and John Jerrim. 

Education Scotland: What Scotland Learnt: 100 stories of lockdown.

Institute for Government, think tank report on government handling of education during the pandemic, August 2021.

Beauchamp et al (2021) ‘People miss people’: A study of school leadership and management in the four nations of the United Kingdom in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Educational Management Administration and Leadership

Bonetti and Cottell (2021) The impact of Covid-19 on early years setting and their staffing decisions. BERA Research Report. (2021) Global messages from the edge of Europe the cause and effect of leadership and planning strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic, Irish Educational Studies, 40:2, 151-159

Day C, Taneva, C and Smith, R ( 2021) System leadership in disruptive times: robust policy making and enactment in School Trusts University of Nottingham School of Education and Confederation of School Trusts.

Done Amy Clarke, E. 2021 Balancing pressures for SENCos as managers, leaders and advocates in the emerging context of the Covid‐19 pandemic British Journal of Special Education

Balancing pressures for SENCos as managers, leaders and advocates in the emerging context of the Covid‐19 pandemic British Journal of Special Education

Ferguson et al (2021) Primary Head Teachers’ Construction and Re-negotiation of Care in COVID-19 Lockdown in Scotland in Frontiers special issue on educational leadership and pandemic.

Fraser, R and Hordern J (2021) How to manage feelings and emotions in a pandemic? the importance of affective containment. Management in Education

Forrester, G, Basford, J, Hudson R & Pugh J (2021): Living and learning through lockdown: a fictionalisation of the challenges and opportunities of homeschooling during a global pandemic, Education 3-13, DOI: 10.1080/03004279.2021.1988674

Fotheringham et al (2021) Pressures and influences on school leaders navigating policy development during the COVID-19 pandemic. British Educational Research Journal

Gillard, Wright, McNally et al (2021) Acceptance & commitment therapy for school leaders’ well-being: an initial feasibility study, Educational Psychology in Practice, 37:1, 34-51

Govaerts and Cann (2021) Towards developing an education continuity plan. Supporting schools in times of crisis. BERA research report

Harris, A. (2020), “COVID-19 – school leadership in crisis?”, Journal of Professional Capital and Community, Vol. 5 No. 3/4, pp. 321-326.

Harris A and Jones, M (202o) Covid-19 – School leadership in disruptive times. Editorial, School Leadership and Management 40(4)

Headrest.2022 Annual Headteacher Wellbeing Report.

Hulme et al Collaboration in Times of Crisis: Leading UK Schools in the Early Stages of a Pandemic. Leadership and Policy in Schools.

Timmins, N 2021 Schools and coronavirus. The government’s handling of education during the pandemic. Institute for Government.

Jopling Michael & Oliver Harness (2021): Embracing vulnerability: how has the Covid-19 pandemic affected the pressures school leaders in Northern England face and how they deal with them?, Journal of Educational Administration and History

Jopling and Harness (2021) Does COVID-19 offer English school leaders the opportunity to rethink schools? Management in Education

Kim and Asbury longitudinal study of teachers during lockdown. (2021) Written evidence submitted to Parliament. (2020)‘Like a rug had been pulled from under you’: The impact of COVID-19 on teachers in England during the first six weeks of the UK lockdown. British Journal of Educational Psychology 90 (4) 1062-1083. Kim, Leary and Asbury. (2021) Teachers’ narratives during COVID-19 partial school reopenings: an exploratory study. Educational Research

Lalli (2021) The free school meal voucher scheme & children’s access to food during the Covid-19 crisis. BERA research report

Maitland, J and Glazzard, J (2022) Finding a way through the fog: school staff experiences of the Covid 19 pandemic Cambridge Journal of Education

McCluskey, Fry, Hamilton, et al (2021) School closures, exam cancellations and isolation: the impact of Covid-19 on young people’s mental health, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 26:1, 46-59

Moss, G, Bradbury A et al. 2021 Learning through disruption. Using schools’experiences during Covid to build a more resilient education system. London: IoE. See also policy briefings and report on teaching assistants during Covid.

Rehm et al (2021) Exploring online social networks of school leaders in times of COVID-19. British Journal of Educational Technology


Aldrich, A., & Lotito, N. (2020). Pandemic Performance: Women Leaders in the COVID-19 Crisis. Politics & Gender, 16(4), 960-967. doi:10.1017/S1743923X20000549

Pre-pandemic research:

Nuffield project on the health and wellbeing of teachers in England over the last 25 years, by Profs John Jerrim, Rebecca Allen

Teacher Wellbeing Index 2020 from Education Support which sees “worrying growth in symptoms of poor mental health in the profession: insomnia; tearfulness, mood swings and difficulties concentrating”


Jolanta and Dempsey (2021) Wellbeing in Post-Covid Schools: Primary School Leaders’ Reimagining of the Future. Research Report. Maynooth University.

Scully, Lehane and Scully. (2021) ‘It is no longer scary’: digital learning before and during the Covid-19 pandemic in Irish secondary schools Teaching Pedagogy and Education 30(1) 159-181


Arnold, B, Rahimi, M and Riley, P (2021) Working through the first year of the pandemic: a snapshot of Australian school leaders’ work roles and responsibilities and health and wellbeing during covid-19. Journal of Educational Administration and History

Collie, R (2021) COVID-19 and Teachers’ Somatic Burden, Stress, and Emotional Exhaustion: Examining the Role of Principal Leadership and Workplace Buoyancy. AERA Open 7(1)

Doucet, A., Netolicky, D., Timmers, K. and Tuscano, F.J. Thinking about Pedagogy in an Unfolding Pandemic An Independent Report on Approaches to Distance Learning During COVID19 School Closures

Harvankova, L, Cunningham, C and Striepe, M (2021) “Mummy is meeting a teacher, play on the iPad”: Reflecting on educational leadership during COVID-19 lockdown in Australia. Management in Education

Ivers, D. (2020). What Next? COVID-19 and Australian Catholic Schools Through a Leadership Lens, International Studies in Educational Administration (Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration & Management (CCEAM)), 48(3), 23-29.

Longmuir F (2021) Leading in lockdown: Community, communication and compassion in response to the COVID-19 crisis. Educational Leadership Administration and Management.

Netolicky, D.M. (2020), “School leadership during a pandemic: navigating tensions”, Journal of Professional Capital and Community, Vol. 5 No. 3/4, pp. 391-395

Striepe, M and Cunningham, C (2022) Understanding educational leadership during times of crises; a scoping review. Journal of Educational Administration

Sum, N ( 2022) School leaders’ perceptions of their roles during the pandemic: an Australian case study exploring volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA leadership) School Leadership & Management

Pre-pandemic research on careers and well being:

The Educator Health and Wellbeing Survey for Principals and Senior Leaders. Prof. Phil Riley has conducted this survey in Australia every year since 2011 and provides a comprehensive study of year on year changes in school leaders’ occupational health. It is also used in New Zealand, Northern Ireland and Finland. 

Australian Secondary Principals Association research on Principal Accountability and Autonomy conducted by Dr Amanda Heffernan and Andrew Pierpoint. Addresses questions of sustainability.  

South Australian principals associations report by Dr Chris Dolan on Paradox in the lives and work of school principals. Examines stressors and tensions in the context of commitment to students’ education.


Thornton, K (2020) Leading through COVID-19: New Zealand secondary principals describe their reality. Educational Management, Administration and Management 49(3) 393-409.


RAND report on teacher job related stress during the pandemic. Has recommendations about what leaders need to do for teachers.

YALE report Education in the face of unprecedented challenges. The research shows how school leaders are reinventing practice during the pandemic. 

Bagel, J (2020) Leading through a pandemic: Adaptive leadership and purposeful action. Journal of School Administration research and Development 5(S1) 30-34.

Bagwell, B 2020 Leading Through a Pandemic: Adaptive Leadership and Purposeful Action JSARD 5 S1

Biag et al (2021) Responding to COVID-19 With the Aid of Mutually Beneficial Partnerships in Education, in Frontiers special issue on pandemic and educational leadership.

Castrellon et al ( 2021) Centering Loss and Grief: Positioning Schools as Sites of Collective Healing in the Era of COVID-19 in Frontiers, special issue on educational leadership and pandemic

Crosslin and Bailey (2021) Mother school leaders negotiate ‘blurred lines’ between work and home during Covid-19. Planning & Changing 50 (3/4) 165-189

Davies, Grooms and Ortega (2021) Distance Learning and Parental Mental Health During COVID-19. Educational Researcher

De Martino dan Wesier (2021) Administrative Leadership in Times of a Global Health Crisis: Voices and Images From the Field in Frontiers, special issue on educational leadership and pandemic

Hayes, Flowers and Williams ( 2021) “Constant Communication”: Rural Principals’ Leadership Practices During a Global Pandemic in Frontiers, special issue on pandemic and educational leadership

Keown, Carroll and Smothers ( 2021) Real Time Responses: Front Line Educators’ View to the Challenges the Pandemic has Posed on Students and Faculty in Frontiers Special Issue on pandemic and educational leadership.

Lochmiller (2021) Rural Superintendents’ Responses to COVID-19: Navigating Local Control During a Public Health Crisis in Frontiers, special issue on pandemic and educational leadership

McLeod and Dulskey (2021) Resilience, Reorientation, and Reinvention: School Leadership During the Early Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Frontier, special issue on educational leadership and pandemic

Marisol-Virella and Cobb (2021) Leveraging the Crisis for Equity and Access in the Long Term: A Brief Research Report in Frontiers, special issue on pandemic and educational leadership

Martinez and Broemmel (2021) Pencils Down: Educators Respond to the Uncertainty Amidst COVID-19 School Closures ISEA 49 (1) 109- 132

Metcalf, L andPerez, I (2020) Blinded by the unknown: A school leaders authentic actions to support teachers and students during COVID-19 school closures. JSARD 5 S1

Money, K, Pacifici, L 2020 Principal Candidates’ Sense of Efficacy: Can They Lead During a Pandemic? JSARD 5 S1

Pressley, T (2021) Factors Contributing to Teacher Burnout During COVID-19. Educational Researcher

Pressley, T (2021) Returning to teaching during COVID-19: An empirical study on elementary teachers’ self-efficacy. Psychology in the Schools.

Price and Mansfield (2021) Leadership in the Time of COVID: Connecting Community Resources to Meet the Needs of North Carolina Students in Frontiers Special Issue on pandemic and educational leadership.

Rehm et al (2021) Exploring online social networks of school leaders in times of COVID-19 BritishJournal of Educational Technology 52(4) pp.1414-1433

Reid D (2021) Suppressing and sharing: how school principals manage stress and anxiety during COVID-19, School Leadership & Management, DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2021.1974827

Reyes Guerra et al (2021) Confronting a Compound Crisis: The School Principal’s Role During Initial Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Frontiers, special issue on pandemic and educational leadership

Stone-Johnson, C. and Miles Weiner, J. (2020), “Principal professionalism in the time of COVID-19”, Journal of Professional Capital and Community, Vol. 5 No. 3/4, pp. 367-374.

Trinidad (2021) Equity, engagement, and health: school organisational issues and priorities during COVID-19 Journal of Educational Administration and History. 53(1) 67-80

Urick, Carpenter and Eckert (2021) Confronting COVID: Crisis Leadership, Turbulence, and Self-Care in Frontiers, special issue on pandemic and educational leadership

Weiner at al ( 2021) Keep Safe, Keep Learning: Principals’ Role in Creating Psychological Safety and Organizational Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Frontiers, special issue on pandemic and educational leadership

Woo, A and Steiner, E (2022) The Well-Being of Secondary School Principals One Year into the COVID-19 Pandemic Rand Corporation

Pre pandemic research:

RAND and the principal pipeline project designed to provide secure supply, induction and retention of school leaders. Latest report Taking stock.


Farrell (2020) Educational leadership during the Covid19 pandemic outbreak

Pollock, K. (2020). School Leaders’ Work During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Two-Pronged ApproachInternational Studies in Educational Administration, 48(3), 38-44.


Herrmann, Neilsen, and Aguilar-Raab ( 2021) The Impact of COVID-19 on Interpersonal Aspects in Elementary School in Frontiers special issue on pandemic and educational leadership


Fedele, Iacuzzi & Garlatti (2021) One Size Does not Fit All: Schools’ Responses to the Covid-19 Crisis, International Journal of Public Administration, 44:11-12, 943-951

Truzoli Pirola and Conte (2021) The impact of risk and protective factors on online teaching experience in high school Italian teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning


Argyropoulou, Sika and Papaioanou (2021) School Leadership in Dire Straits: Fighting the Virus or Challenging the Consequences? ISEA 49 (1) 18-27

Gkoros D, and Braitsitsis, T (2021) E-leadership and distance education in Greece during the Covid-19 pandemic Management in Education


Hylton-Fraser, K.,& and Hylton, K. (2021). Building Educational Resistance – A COVID-19 Jamaican Perspective, International Studies in Educational Administration (ISEA) (Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration & Management (CCEAM)), 49(1), 59-65.




Vaneva, M and Bojadjiev, M (2021) Doing business in the ‘new normal”: School leaders’ COVID-19 language matters. EntreNova DOI:


Jones, M, Dehlen, E, Skoglund, K and Dons, C (2021) Crisis as opportunity: experiences of Norwegian school leaders during the COVID-19 pandemic Education in the North28(3) pp. 274-292


Rodriguez C et al (2021) Fighting windmills: a female principal’s story during COVID-19 School Leadership and Management


Emenc, Kalin, Mazgon (2021) How to run an empty school: The experience of Slovenian School Heads during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Sage Open


Schecter, C, Da’as, R, Qatach, M (2021) Crisis leadership: Leading schools in a global pandemic. Management in Education

Ganon- Shilon, S, Finkelstein, I, Sela-Shayovitz, R, Schecter, C (2021) Inclusive leadership in times ofCOVID-19 crisis: the role of districts and school leaders in fostering school sense-making processes within a national inclusion and integration reform. Leadership and Policy in Schools


Nellakantan, M, Kumar, A, Sonu, M and Sadana, A (2022) Steering through the pandemic: narrative analysis of school lear experiences in India International Journal of Leadership in Education.

Neelofar, A., Prerana, B., Shahidul, I.M., & Sarah, A. (2020). COVID-19 and Unconventional Leadership Strategies to Support Student Learning in South Asia: Commentaries From Bangladesh, India and PakistanInternational Studies in Educational Administration, 48(3), 87-94.


Pinar Ayyildiz, P., & Baltaci, H.S. (2020). Hold on Tight Everyone: We’re Going Down a Rabbit Hole. Educational Leadership in Turkey During, the COVID-19 PandemicInternational Studies in Educational Administration (ISEA) (Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration & Management (CCEAM)), 48(3), 80-86.

Kavrayıcı, C., & Kesim, E. (2021) School Management During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study, Educational Administration: Theory & Practice, 27(1), p1005-1060.


BURWELL (2021) The Impact of COVID-19 on School Leadership, E-Learning, and Student Achievement in the United Arab Emirates ISEA 49(1) 94-100


Amal Alsaleh (2021) Professional learning communities for educators’ capacity building during COVID-19: Kuwait educators’ successes and challenges, International Journal of Leadership in Education


Adams et al (2021) Leading schools through the COVID-19 crisis in a South-East Asian country Management in Education


Siambi James 2021 The effect of self-leadership competencies on the perceived ability of school leaders to cope with COVID-19 pandemic crisis challenges i n  Jeddah schools, Saudi Arabia  Research in Education


Du Plessis P (2021) COVID-19: Leading in Disruptive Times – Challenges for School Leaders Alternation 28,1: 316 – 337 (2021)

Edwin Darrell de Klerk, J. Palmer 2021, Policy Analysis for School Leaders’ Development during the Covid-19 Pandemic – An Adaptive Leadership Practice Framework Alternation


Bahkt, M Khan, S, Blanco, G (2021) 21st century leadership skills practiced by school leaders in Pakistan during the Covid 19 Pandemic Global Social Sciences Review


AlicamenDaryl BenedictKaren Salve 2021 Rising From The Embers: Learning Continuity Experiences Of School Leaders In The Throes Of COVID-19 Pandemic

San Miguel, N and Pascual, E A (2021) school leaders’ resilience amidst pandemic in the division of Laguna, Philippines. International Journal of Research Publication

San Miguel, N (2021) School leaders’ resilience amidst pandemic in the district of Victoria. International Journal of Research Publications


Khalid Arar, Rania Sawalhi, Youmen Chaaban, Abdelaziz Zohri & Ibrahim Alhouti (2022) School leaders’ perspectives towards leading during crisis through an ecological lens: a comparison of five Arab countries, Journal of Educational Administration and History, 54:2, 123-142, DOI: 10.1080/00220620.2021.1957793


OECD report on Lessons for Education from Covid-19 explores educational experiences from around the world and how policy makers can use the moment of the crisis to leverage change in education as a whole-of-society project. HundrED Toolkit: Quality Education for all during Covid-19: HundrED has released Quality Education For All During Covid-19, in partnership with the OECD. The toolkit comprises a website and summary report and brings together a collection of simple solutions from around the world to provide support and resources for parents, practitioners and learners and help them navigate a plethora of different types of challenges facing education during the pandemic.

Kwatubana S & Molaodi V (2021) Leadership Styles that Would Enable School Leaders to Support the Wellbeing of Teachers during COVID-19 New Challenges to Education: Lessons from Around the World BCES Conference Books, 2021, Volume 19. Sofia: Bulgarian Comparative Education Society

Cordeiro, Gluckman and Johnson (2021) Responses to COVID-19 From Non-State School Leaders in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa and, India: A Call for Educational Equity in Frontiers, special issue on pandemic and educational leadership

Educational Development Trust (2020) Key lessons on effective leadership during COVID-19 and beyond: Commentary

Fullan, Quinn and Microsoft (2021) Education Reimagined

Harris, A 2021 The relationships between school leaders and education stakeholders UNESCO working paper.

Dr Helen Kelly 2020 report on school leaders well-being. Survey of 750 leaders, majority from UK.

Kniffin et al (2021). COVID-19 and the workplace: Implications, issues, and insights for future research and action. American Psychologist, 76(1), 63–77.

White, and MacCallum, F (2021) Eds. Well-being and resilience education. education. Covid 19 and its impact on education. Routledge. An international collection.

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